Nucleotide Bases    Binary Code                no. of nucleons                     no. of  atoms
a -       (amp)             (amp)
g -       (gmp)             (gmp)
u -       (ump)             (ump) 
c -       (cmp)             (cmp)
t -       (tmp)             (tmp) 
       

Complementary triplets  (Palindromic & Non-Palindromic)

(Applicable to both codons & anti-codons)

 

*Out of 32 pairs of complementary  codons, 8 pairs are palindromes. In such cases, the complementary codon is also anti-codon & mirror codon. Here suppose,(cuc,gag ) are codon pairs  with amino acid pair(L,E) then (gag,cuc) are the anti- codon pairs with amino acid pair (E,L). Only the order is reversed while going from codon to anti-codon.

* With (c,g=S) alphabet, there are 2 pairs i.e 4 palindromes. Similarly, with (a,u = W) alphabet, there are 4 palindromes. Rest 8 are mixed ones.

* (ccc,gcg,cuc,gug,aga,ugu,aaa,uau with a=g=u=c=6) total 252 and the complementary set (ggg,cgc,gag,cac,ucu,aca,uuu,aua) also total 252. (ccc,aga), (cuc,aaa) , (gcg,uau) and (gug,ugu) are called balancing twins because if you interchange ccc with its complement , then you have to also interchange aga with its complement so that the net effect on numbers on both sides are same. This is so only when a=00, g=01,u=10 & c=11). One has to find corresponding figures and pairs for other values of a,g,u and c.

* The palindromic set involves 16 amino acids out of which 7 are polar and 8 non-polar. There are 7 belonging to aaRS-I and 8 to aaRS-II. It leaves out 5 amino acids (I,W,D,N,Q) out of which 3 are polar and 2 non-polar and 3 are aaRS-I & 2 are aaRS-II.

*Out of non-palindromic set, there are 4 pairs with cg majority and 4 pairs with au majority-totalling 16 codons.There are 2 pairs with ac majority and 2 pairs with ug majority totalling 8. Thus there are 40 codons where there is repetition of the alphabets. Last 2 are non-repeating alphabets in codons totaling 24.

*The complementary sets can be both codons or anti-codons. For example, if we take the pair (cga,ucg) if cga is taken as the codon, its complementary codon is ucg.Also the anti codon of cga is gcu i.e complementary codon read from right hand side. Similarly if cga is taken as anti-codon, ucg is its complementary anti-codon and codon of cga is gcu i.e  ucg read from right side.

* Out of  32 pairs of complementary codons/anti-codons, 24 pairs (48 codons) map from Polar to Non-Polar amino acids, whereas 4 pairs map from Polar to Polar and another 4 pairs map from non-polar to non-polar amino acids. Thus no of pairs mapping same type of amino acids is 8(16 codons)

* Out of 32 pairs of complementary codons, 8 pairs (16) map to same amino acids i.e. 4 pairs from polar to polar and the other 4 pair from non-polar to non-polar.

* Out of 32 pairs of mirror codons, 8 pairs (16) map to same amino acids i.e. 4 pairs from polar to polar and the other 4 pair from non-polar to non-polar.

*How many codons are common to both mirror and complementary pair ? Answer is 8 out of which there are 2 pairs (4 in no. ) which are palindromic and hence the complementary and mirror codons are same. These are ccc(np)--ggg(np) and ucu(p)--aga(p). The other 4 [ggc(np),cca(np),agu(p)ucg(p)] codons are common to both mirror and complementary set. While the complementary set of these are [gcc(np),ugg(np),agu(p),ucg(p)] belonging to one subset - the mirror codons are [ccg(np),ggu(np),uca(p),agc(p) ] which belong to the other subset & there is no element common to both.

* Out of 16 same polarity mirror codons, 8 are common & hence other 8 are unique to this subgroup. They are ccu(np)--gga(np), ucc(p)--agg(p)

* Out of 16 same polarity complementary codons, 8 are common & hence other 8 are unique to this subgroup. They are ugc(np)--gca(np), cgu(p)--acg(p)

* Total no. of codons involved in same polarity mapping so far as complementary & mirror codons are concerned,are 24(16+16-8=24)

triplet(Palindromic) no. complementary no. polarity(codons) aaRS(codons) AA(codons)
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
TOTAL        
triplet (cg/au) majority            
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
TOTAL        
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
TOTAL        
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
TOTAL        
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
-- - - -
TOTAL        
Grand total        
             
16 Mirror codons that map same type of Amino Acids

( if S and P with c as middle base interchange their slots, then the 8 pairs fall in line with the rest 24 pairs in mapping polar to

non-polar aa and (ggg+ggc+gga+ggu+ucc+ucu+uca+ucg=ccc+ccg+ccu+cca+agg+aga+agu+agc)

Type codon AA number Type Complementary codon AA number
cg ccc P-np cg ggg G-np
cg ccg P-np cg ggc G-np
cu ccu P-np ag gga G-np
ac cca P-np ug ggu G-np
total P1     P2  
cu ucc S-p ag agg R-p
cu ucu S-p ag aga R-p
  P3     P4  
cu/(ag) uca S-p ag/(uc) agu S-p
cu/(ag) ucg S-p ag/(uc) agc S-p
  P5     P6  
P2+P3+P5: sub.total A   P1+P4+P6:  
               
cg cgc R-p cg gcg A-np
au uau Y-p au aua I/M-np
au aaa K-p au uuu F-np
au uaa stop-p au auu I-np
au aau N-p au uua L-np
ag gag E-p uc cuc L-np
ag gaa E-p cu cuu L-np
ag aag K-p cu uuc F-np
ac cac H-p ug gug V-np
ac aca T-p ug ugu C-np
Sub Total-B          
Sub Total-Ba(pink)          
ac cau H-p ug gua V-np
ac uac Y-p ug aug M-np
ag uag stop-p uc auc I-np
ag gau D-p uc cua L-np
ag cag Q-p uc guc V-np
ag gac D-p uc cug L-np
Sub Total-C          
cg cgg R-p cg gcc A-np
ac acc T-p ug ugg W-np
sub total          
ac caa Q-p ug guu V-np
ac aac N-p ug uug L-np
Sub total -Da(pink)          
Sub Total-D          
cg cga R-p cg gcu A-np
cg cgu R-p cg gca A-np
ac acu T-p ug uga W-np/stop
ac acg T-p ug ugc C-np
Sub Total-E          
               
               
               
S.Total