Calculation of Binding Energy
|* Protons, electrons, positrons, neutrinos ,anti-neutrinos
are considered as the 5 stable elementary particles. Other particles
such as neutrons are unstable at free state and decay.
* Initially, it was thought that neutrinos are mass less. But, after 1998 , several experiments suggest that neutrinos oscillate in between electronic, muonic and taonic forms and without having rest mass, this is not possible. In fact, 2015 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded for path breaking work on neutrino oscillations. For more, click.
* As regards radius of the proton, the same is different when electron is in the orbit than when a muon is in the orbit. This anomaly gives rise to the speculation regarding the possible presence of another force.For more, click 1,2